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How to

Getting Into Trail Running

I’m sure the thought of trail running seems like a superhero feat, but it’s actually not as bad as you might think. Trail running is similar to running on a track or road, with the added benefit of letting you reconnect with nature while getting in a little cardio. Trail running has other benefits that basic road running does not. Surprisingly, trail running puts less pressure on your joints, leading to fewer injuries in the long run. Now you’re thinking, “Well, running on uneven ground is dangerous,” which is true if you’re not careful, but along with road running, all sports have their pros and cons. For those who are just starting out, there are a few things you need to know before hitting the trails.

Start out slow

Obviously it’s called trail running for a reason, but that doesn’t mean you need to fully sprint up and down the trail. Start off slow to get into the groove of things. Rugged terrain can sometimes be tricky, so don’t be ashamed to slow down and take your time when running. If you’re prone to knee and ankle injuries, trail running is lower-impact compared to running on solid, hard surfaces like pavement or track, especially if you take it easy at first.

Be prepared

Like any kind of exercising, you’ll need water. Running up an incline while simultaneously dodging rocks, avoiding branches, and making sure your footing is correct can be quite the workout. Most small hiking backpacks will have chest and waist clips to strap that baby in nice and tight. I like to be extra prepared with snacks and a small first aid kit just in case as well.

Have proper footwear

Just like in hiking, ankle rolls are common. I suggest light weight, ankle high hiking boots for the extra support. Again, if you’re prone to ankle injuries, ankle braces can be helpful as well. If you just have tennis shoes, make sure they have a good amount of tread for footing purposes.

Know the rules of the trail

It’s good to know what kind of trail you will be running and the traffic it has because not all trails are the same. Yield to other hikers and runners and remember that it is better safe than sorry. Not doing so is potentially dangerous, and even without injury, no one wants to be shoved off the trail by someone else.

Elbows out

Use those arms! Balance is everything. Trail running is great in the way that it works out muscles you didn’t even know you had. Utilizing your arms will help you get better footing and help you balance as you run on rugged terrain.

Keep your eyes on the prize

While simultaneously watching your footing, dodging obstacles, and focusing on your breathing, always keep your eye on the trail. No one wants to trip over a tree root or rock and injure themselves. Running, tripping, and falling down a mountainside sounds like a nightmare. Avoid that by being attentive to your surroundings.

Take it all in

Last but not least, don’t forget to stop and smell the flowers or the sheer sweat that you’ve worked up while running through our beautiful Utah scenery. The biggest benefit of trail running is the change of scenery anyway, right? Happy trail running!

a.duong@wasatchmag.com

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Capturing Winter

During winter in Utah, you can create some of the most picturesque images you have ever captured. It is this time of year to focus on polar opposites: fire and ice, lights and darks, etc. Utah’s unique climate means you will be able to find great contrast between the red desert landscapes and a fresh coat of white snow. Seeing fresh snow coat the most iconic landmarks within southern Utah’s national parks are moments you will never forget. In the north, the abundance of wildlife upon a winter canvas shows the endurance many species have to survive, including humans.

Frost accumulates on trees and shrubs from the high moisture content during an inversion in Salt Lake City, Utah on Tuesday, Dec. 12, 2017. Photo by Kiffer Creveling.

As you travel throughout Utah this winter season, keep your eye out for these memorable opportunities. Don’t only take a picture for the sake of using your camera, but take a picture that tells a story. Look for those situations where you are able to photograph a picture that’s worth a thousand words. Some of my favorite pictures during the winter are those that illuminate the beauty in harsh weather conditions.

Think outside the box to capture a multitude of compositions. This can range from your wide-angle shots of the Salt Lake Valley from the top of various mountain peaks, to the zoomed-in photo of individual snowflakes highlighted by the sun’s rays, and everything in between.

The snow adds a harsh brightness to any daytime photo. For example, a complementary dark object of skiers, wildlife, or the buildup of snow upon a parked car are all exaggerated by the bright, white snow. Use this to your advantage to control and guide your viewer’s eye towards the main story of your picture.

Sunrises and sunsets during the winter are also quite breathtaking. Due to the reflective properties of snow, the vibrant colors from the sun are not only on the clouds above, but on the snow below. You see an abundance of colors across the snow including bright reds, oranges, and yellows. It’s these types of natural phenomenon that are truly exciting to photograph.

Photo by Peter Creveling.

Once you have your subject setup, try a variety of options with your camera to achieve the perfect composition. For example, during sunset photos, try using a longer exposure to highlight all of the colors in your scenery as well as making your image appear smoother. Another tip for photographing snow it is to slightly overexpose your images. Snow tends to have a blueish color when viewed through your camera lens. Overexposure will help solve this problem and give you an image that better resembles what we actually see. Don’t forget to play around with a variety of aperture settings. To make a snow storm look more harsh, lower your aperture (increase your depth of field). The image will include more snowflakes in focus over a greater distance to exaggerate the severity of a storm.

These next few months, I will be out trying to implement these techniques in my photographs of our winter environment here in Utah. It will mean cold fingertips, but it is worth enduring the freezing temperatures to capture the beauty our state has to offer.

p.creveling@wasatchmag.com

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How to: Get Great Shots

Rock climbing with Ben, Peter, Colin, Claire, John, Brian, and Kim at the City of Rocks National Reserve in Idaho on Saturday, June 10, 2017. Photo by Kiffer Creveling.

Holding your camera firmly in both hands, you kneel against a fence to stabilize your body. You have steadied your breathing and can feel each and every heartbeat pulsate through you like a lightning bolt. In front of you is a picturesque scene that you want to capture. Alone, with nobody to consult, you look through the viewfinder and envision the photograph you are about to take. In your mind, the image is in the same ballpark as Ansel Adams, a legendary pioneer of adventure photography. You take the shot. You move on.

When you look over the photo later, you realize to your dismay that the image you got is nowhere near that of the great Mr. Adams. Why is that? Why was the image that you mentally created nowhere near the final result?

There are many reasons this could happen.

Check your camera settings.

Was the camera in auto exposure mode?  Were you letting the camera think for you? Were you using a telephoto zoom lens when the scene you wanted to capture was wider angle? Did you have a fast shutter speed when you wanted to capture more of a motion blur? The list goes on and on. The truth is that there is no fail-safe method to avoid this every time, since you are human and will always be susceptible to mistakes. Over time, though, you can become familiar with which settings work best for where, and remember to change everything accordingly.

Rock climbing with Ben, Peter, Colin, Claire, John, Brian, and Kim at the City of Rocks National Reserve in Idaho on Saturday, June 10, 2017. Photo by Kiffer Creveling.

Have your camera with you always.

Be on your toes at all times, constantly shooting less-thrilling moments to be ready, camera in hand, for that one perfect shot you will never get again. Let’s say you are backpacking in the mountains and it has been raining all day. Your feet are wet, and you can feel blisters threatening to form. Every step you take is agonizingly painful. All you want to do is stop and wait out the storm. The camera you brought with you is not weather resistant, so you haven’t taken it out. The rain turns into a torrential downpour and you need to set up shelter to wait out the storm. While it might feel like there is nothing to shoot at this point, this is actually the perfect opportunity to take your carefully protected camera out and photograph everything you can.

Leave your comfort zone.

When you are the most uncomfortable, you will be able to capture difficult scenes that you would have otherwise never have imagined. You will grow from the experiences of intense discomfort, which will often get you great photos and improve your skill level in any outdoor adventure.

Skiing and pond skimming with Blake, and Kristen at Snowbird on Sunday, June 4, 2017. Photo by Kiffer Creveling.

Change your perspective.

The average height of an adult male is around 6 feet and the average height of a female is 5-foot-4.  I would estimate that 95 percent of photographs that are taken are shot at or near the eye level of either of these heights.  One very simple way to set yourself apart from the majority of photographers is to change your perspective. Try and find a vantage point where you can look down on your scene, or better yet lay on the ground and look up at your subject. Just by changing your perspective you will add more life to the images you capture.

Practice, practice, practice.

The moral of the story really is practice makes perfect. If you bring your camera with you and really want to get better at photography, try using different lenses in all types of situations. If you see other photographers at a national park, ask them what lenses they are using, and what kind of results they usually get. Being open to new ideas and experimenting constantly will undoubtedly improve your camera skills, getting you a few great shots in the meantime.

Skiing and pond skimming with Blake, and Kristen at Snowbird on Sunday, June 4, 2017. Photo by Kiffer Creveling.

Remember, when you are out photographing, be considerate of other photographers. You don’t want to ruin another individual’s photographs as you wouldn’t want them to ruin the shot you are trying to take. Happy shooting.

k.creveling@wasatchmag.com

Header photo by Peter Creveling.

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Eating Outside the Pack

I don’t know about anyone else, but when I camp, cooking is the last thing that comes to mind. My preparation for any outdoor adventure revolves around gear and water. I’m perfectly happy living off of granola bars, trail mix, and fruit if it’s a short trip; but we all know that is not enough to survive anything longer. A fulfilling, hearty meal is key if you want the energy to play all day–and here are some of my favorite and easy meals you can use for any outdoor adventure.

All these meals can be fully prepped before your adventure even begins; a quick run to the grocery store should be the most complicated part. These recipes can provide the hearty nutrition you need to enjoy the outdoors to their greatest capacity, without draining much of your precious adventuring time. Campfire French Toast, Walking Tacos, and Tinfoil BBQ Chicken – all three are based around easy purchases and simple methods. All you need are a few simple ingredients, a campfire, the great outdoors, and good company. They were all found on Pinterest; and there are plenty more where they came from.

Campfire French Toast

Ingredients:

1 loaf of bread

2 eggs

1 cup of milk (or premade French toast mix)

1 tsp. cinnamon

1 cup of fruit (optional)

Syrup of choice (optional)

Supplies:

Aluminum foil

Parchment paper

Mixing bowl

Instructions:

If you decide to not use the premade: mix eggs, cinnamon and milk.

Loosely wrap the load in parchment paper and tin foil so the bread slices fall slightly open.

Sprinkle fruit over loaf.

Pour egg mixture over entire loaf.

Set in an area of the fire where there is no open flame or coals (or, in other words, cook in low to medium heat).

Cook for 6-10 minutes before serving with syrup.

Walking Tacos

Ingredients:

1 package/roll ground beef

1 packet of taco seasoning

2 tomatoes (diced)

1 bag of shredded lettuce

1 small tub of sour cream

1 package of shredded cheese

1 large bag/mini bags of Fritos

Supplies:

Nothing at all

(Maybe a bowl/cup)

Instructions:

To make a quick and easy meal, I would suggest prepping everything before the trip.

Cook beef until well-browned. Add taco seasoning.

Dice fresh tomatoes.

Crush chips in hands and add toppings into snack sized bags to combine in taco when eating.

Note: If you don’t have snack-sized, mix crushed chips and toppings together now, and enjoy later!

Tinfoil BBQ Chicken

Ingredients:

1 rotisserie chicken (or any precooked chicken)

1 bottle of BBQ sauce

Any kind of chopped vegetables

Supplies:

Aluminum foil

Instructions:

Shred cooked chicken.

Dice chosen vegetables.

Mix chicken, vegetables and BBQ sauces together.

Wrap mixture fully in tin foil.

Cook for 5-10 minutes in fire or until hot.

a.duong@wasatchmag.com

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BikingFeatureGearHow to

Learning Proper Bicycle Maintenance

Maintaining a bike is similar to the practice of warming your body up for a big race with a proper cool down afterwards, or preparing for an important exam by regularly studying; and it all comes down to proper, regular inspection.

A bike gets a quick checkup. Photo by Peter Creveling.

There are four things to check before every ride you make, regardless of if you are a frequent visitor to your bike seat or someone who just decided to brush off the cobwebs of your grandparent’s Schwinn.

First: Check the air in your tires. Make sure the tire pressure is optimal as suggested by the manufacturer, and be sure to check that all release levers, tire caps, or thru axles are properly tightened. Be sure nothing is loose before you start to ride.

Second: Inspect your brakes. Squeeze both the front and rear brakes to ensure the pads engage your rims properly and evenly. Good breaks are essential, they can make the difference between having the ride of your life — and the last ride of your life.

Third: Clean your drivetrain. This is essentially the transmission of your bike, so a clean and well lubricated drivetrain will make your ride easier and extend the life of your bike. Take a dry, or damp, rag and run along the chain to clean up any dirt accumulated between the linkages. For very dirty chains, I highly recommend using a chain cleaner that allows for a deep clean between the linkages. These are very easy to use devices that latch onto the chain and are simple enough to use by holding the device in place while you peddle.

A bike gets a quick checkup. Photo by Peter Creveling.

Fourth: Keep all of the parts well lubricated. A well lubricated bike is the equivalent to doing a warm-up lap around the track and stretching before you run the 100 meter dash. Running cold turkey is asking for something to be torn, and the same thing goes for any bicycle! But remember, too much lubrication can lead to a decrease in bike performance, and even damages. This is because lubrication can attract abrasive material that can get in-between parts and decrease their integrity. Give lubrication ample time to soak in, and simply wipe away any excess, before going on that bike ride. Key areas to focus on for lubrication include: breaks, derailleurs, cassettes, chain rings and, of course, the chain. For the breaks and derailleurs, this includes any levers, cables, and their entire assembly.

These are only the basics towards bike maintenance. Supplies you will need include: clean rags, brushes, soap, water, lubricant, degreaser, and a bike stand.

The most important element is to take your time; don’t rush your way through this process. Take care of your bike and it will take care of you. Also, don’t underestimate the advantage of taking your bike into the shop. These tips will help you keep your bike on the road or on the trail more often, but it’s important to get your bike a full checkup every once in a while in addition to these regular efforts.

p.creveling@wasatchmag.com

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Finding Free Camping Worldwide

There’s nothing better than filling your pack, grabbing your gear, and checking out of social media as you head outdoors for a camping adventure. One of the best things about any outdoor activity is that it can be as inexpensive or as extravagant as you want it to be. When it comes to camping, there are many ways to save money and still have a comfortable and enjoyable stay in the great outdoors. When campers Johnny and Jenn of Hitek Homeless realized this in 2008, they decided to share their money saving tips by starting the website freecampsites.net. Now, nearly a decade later, campers from all over the world have been using this resource to seek out free and affordable campsites far and wide.

As someone who takes camping seriously, I’ve made it a priority to spend a few nights in the wilderness in the form of a camping trip at least once a month. One of the reasons why I choose to camp is to get away from the bustle and noise of everyday life, and enjoy the solitude of nature. Unfortunately, many other people have that same thought in mind as they crowd the campsites at our many national and state parks every summer. Taking advantage of free primitive or BLM campsites has allowed me the luxury of taking in the gorgeous views of our public lands while being able to retreat at the end of the night to a campsite that is secluded and all my own.

Being a college student — and an art major at that — it’s very important for me to budget my recreational spending. Freecampsites.net has allowed me to camp through nearly all of 2016 and all of 2017 so far without spending a dime on a tent site. Of course, there will be some downsides to camping at a free site. The amenities that most often cost fees, such as bathrooms, picnic tables, and fire pits, are not always available or easily accessible at the camping locations listed on this great resource. Luckily, if these amenities are available, freecampsites.net includes all the information it can.

The best thing about this website is that it’s stocked with GPS locations for camping from Utah to Bangladesh. The site has grown into quite the community, and everyone that has an account has the ability to upload information about a free campsite along with reviews, tips, and pictures of the location. This makes the site easy to use for all ages. It’s the ultimate camper’s tool at the touch of a button.

If you choose to start using freecampsites.net to plan your next adventures, make sure to upload a picture or drop a note about your stay. The camping community is continually growing, and sharing tips and tricks is the best way to make sure everyone can enjoy the outdoors together.

If you decide that just this once you are interested in paying for those amenities, freecampsites.net also has a large list of available campsites that do charge fees.

e.aboussou@wasatchmag.com

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Constellations on Camera

Have you ever wondered how to capture the night sky while camping? Photography harnesses light and stores the information on either film or a digital sensor, but when capturing images at night, you are missing the primary component — light. So listen up, if you want to capture that perfect Milky Way photo, you’ll need to know a few of the basics of photography — ISO, shutter speed, and aperture.

ISO: The electrical sensitivity of the digital sensor.

Shutter speed: The amount of time the camera has the shutter up to allow light to expose the image sensor.

Aperture: The size of the opening in the lens to allow light to expose the image sensor. The aperture is usually referred to as f/number, or the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the pupil which allows light through the lens.

Capture those unforgettable moments during your night adventures with these steps:

Step One: Increase the ISO (film equivalent to speed) so less light exposes the image.

Step Two: Decrease the shutter speed to allow as much light as you need to properly expose the image.

Step Three: Lower the f/number (f/1.4, f/2.8, f/5.6) to allow the amount of light entering the lens to increase. Warning: when you decrease the shutter speed, you’ll need to ensure that the camera “shake” does not drown out the subject matter of your photograph. Use a tripod and an intervalometer to stabilize the camera while decreasing the shutter speed more than the typical 30-second timer. The use of a tripod will mitigate vibrations for extended periods of time, like when you are imaging stars at night.

When you have your camera on a tripod or on stable ground, first increase the ISO to a high number that doesn’t introduce electrical noise — this will typically be the highest ISO before you reach Hi 1 and Hi 2. The higher the number, the more false noise (rainbow colored specks) in your image. Next, change the focus to manual on your lens. Because it is near impossible to focus on an object in the dark, have someone point a flashlight on the object that you want to be in focus and manually adjust the lens until you’ve focused your object. Lower the f/number on your lens to the lowest number to allow as much light as possible expose the image sensor. Last, decrease the shutter speed to allow the desired amount of light expose the image. Pay attention to the exposure meter to see if your image is over or under exposed and adjust the settings accordingly until you get the perfect shot.

Here are your basic camera settings for capturing the heavens above: ISO 3200, f/2.8, 30-second exposure*, 14 mm focal length, manual focus, tripod to stabilize the camera. Have fun! Write down the settings you use and see what works and what you need to change.

AVOID STAR BLUR:

If using a full-frame camera (35 mm digital sensor), divide 500 by the focal length to find the best exposure time.

Exposure time [sec]≈500/(focal length [mm])

If using an APS-C camera (24 mm digital sensor), divide 500 by your camera’s crop factor and focal length to find the exposure time.

Exposure time [sec]≈500/(Crop factor)*(focal length [mm])

k.creveling@wasatchmag.com

Photo by Kiffer Creveling

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How to: Make Coffee When Camping

Imagine that you’re deep in the Wasatch Mountains, hiking up to Mount Timpanogos 20 miles away from your favorite coffee shop or your fancy espresso machine at home. Scary thought, right? When you’re planning for a weeklong backpacking or camping trip, excessive gear is tossed out left and right, but for everyone’s sake and sanity, keep the coffee. Follow these steps to beat any “cowboy coffee” or Starbucks instant packs when on the trail.

Snow Peak’s French Press, the best camping French press in my opinion, is so lightweight, it’s always worth bringing along. I store all my coffee supplies for the trail inside and use it as a pot, since it can be placed directly on coals. The only drawbacks are that it doesn’t make a lot of coffee and it’s a little pricey — $55.99, to be exact.

To use it, just follow these three simple steps:

  1. Boil water
  2. Add grounds (my favorite is Cuarenteno from Jack Mormon Coffee Co.)
  3. Sit for three minutes and filter.
  4. To clean, rinse out grounds with a little water

Another alternative is liquid coffee concentrate, the perfect solution to serve high volumes of hot coffee quickly. Plus, the concentrate can be used to make iced coffee by diluting with two parts cold water and ice.

  1. Place two cups of ground coffee in a pitcher and cover with six cups of water at room temperature. Cover with a tea towel and let sit a minimum of 12 hours, 24 if you want it to be stronger. When camping, prep ahead and let it sit overnight.
  2. Strain coffee concentrate with a coffee filter.
  3. Dilute the concentrate with two parts boiling water. I tend to do a ratio of one part concentrate to two parts water, but over time you can experiment to see what tastes best to you.
  4. Depending on how long your trip is, grab some cream from the 7-11 before heading up the canyon or buy some Milkman instant low fat dehydrated milk from Amazon or REI.

You never need to give up a cup of coffee, even when you are out in Utah’s wilderness surrounded by red rocks or pine boughs and the crunch of snow. You can awaken to the sounds of unzipping bags and tents and the smell of a smoking campfire with the knowledge that delicious hot coffee awaits. You and your friends will be even happier with caffeine pumping through your blood.

s.guirguis@wasatchmag.com

Photo by Sam Guiguis

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Good to Go, Meals for the Trail

Spring break is quickly approaching, and so is the season of gradual snowmelt, wildflowers, and terrestrial rebirth. Whether you intend to flock to more temperate wilderness or strap on a pair of snowshoes and stay local for the coming break, you’re going to need to sustain yourself out there. We’ve ditched the extravagance, leaving you with quick, hearty, and easy recipes to fill your tummy and more importantly, give you time and energy to engage with nature to your heart’s content.

TRAIL MIXES

We’ll give you the ingredients, you decide the quantity. 4:1 chocolate to peanut ratio? Go for it. All ingredients can likely be found in the bulk section of your local grocery store.

Sacred Seeds: Almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, garlic powder, onion powder, and cayenne pepper.

Power Blend: Flax seeds, goji berries, pistachios, dried blueberries, and dark chocolate chips.

Nutty Nutrition: Almonds, walnuts, cashews, peanuts, pecans, and raisins.

GORP: Simply peanuts, raisins, and M&Ms.

Coastal: Macadamia nuts, white chocolate chips, dried pineapple, and coconut flakes.

THE REAL MEALS

Particularly on longer excursions, Clif bars and handfuls of trail mix may not cut it. Give your body what it needs with these quick-and-easy recipes. Essentials: water-boiling mechanism, sturdy bowl and utensils, and trash bag for waste.

Pseudo Eggs and Bacon: pre-cooked bacon bits, instant mashed potatoes, and powdered eggs. Despite its ultra-processed components, this meal provides you with high amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and sodium to keep you marching along. Prepare heated ingredients separately.

Oatmeal: Use either bulk steel-cut oats or instant oatmeal as a base, mix in granola or some of the tasty trail mix you threw together, and you have yourself some hearty morning sustenance.

Thai Curry: Insta-rice, canned tuna, coconut milk powder, and a bit of curry powder. Infuse coconut milk with curry powder/paste to create the base — add the base into cooked rice and tuna.

Jerky Ramen: This one is lightweight and easy-peasy. Prepare any flavor of top ramen and submerge preferred jerky variety into broth, allowing it to soak for a while. Soy sauce optional (and highly recommended).

Nutella Wrap: Not entirely nutritious, though a delicious reward for a long day of physical torment. Requires only a flour tortilla, Nutella, and dried banana chips (feel free to be adventurous with additional ingredients). Simply spread, sprinkle, and wrap — voila, dessert!

Between your newfound knowledge of trail mix combinations and fully-stocked utility belt of simplistic, hearty meals, you are ready to march forth into the wilderness with confidence! Remember: a savvy snacker is an environmentally conscious snacker — leave no waste, and leave no trace.

d.rees@wasatchmag.com

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Old School Navigation

Learning to survive in the wilderness is a skill many outdoorsmen and women brush under the rug. We think we’ll never get lost, our equipment will never fail, and if we   ever injure ourselves, it won’t be more than a scratch.

Navigation is essential in wilderness preparedness, especially since Google Maps doesn’t work when you are 15 miles away from the nearest trailhead in the middle of the San Raphael Swell. This spring break, learn how to find your way with these three tips.

FOLLOW THE STARS

If you are hiking with the stars in the northern hemisphere, the best tip for navigation is to look for the North Star, aka Polaris. Locate the Big Dipper, one of the more recognizable constellations. If you look at the opposite side of the handle on the Big Dipper and draw a straight line using those two stars, you’ll find the North Star. It is the brightest star on this line and is about three fist sizes away. Find south using Orion, following his belt straight down to the horizon when it’s vertical in the sky.

READ A COMPASS

While compasses all point North based off of the magnetic pole in the northern hemisphere, they can also be used to accurately point you in any direction. Using a combination of the compass needle, the compass housing, and the orienting arrow, any direction is possible. For a magnetic compass, this is done by rotating your compass housing until the direction you are looking for is lined up with the direction of travel arrow. Keeping these all fixed, rotate yourself until the compass needle lines up in the direction of north within the compass housing. With both of these aligned, you will have the correct direction of travel.

INTERPRET A TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP

Topos give you an accurate three-dimensional representation of the lay of the land in two dimensions, so keep these tips in mind when reading one. Every point on the same contour (wavy) line has the same elevation. One side of a contour line is uphill and the other is downhill, based on the distance between those lines. Contour lines close to form a circle or they run off of the map. The area inside the circle is almost always higher than the contour line. This helps gauge the elevation gain or loss on a mountain pass trail. It lets you know how much work it will be to go one mile in direction X compared to direction Y. Now that you can read contour lines, try to correlate them to physical features around you, such as peaks, valleys, or waterways.

Once you have these skills, you are set to navigate almost any terrain. The best part? No batteries or charging required.

p.creveling@wasatchmag.com

Photo by Peter Creveling

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